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Disinfection processes substantially remove, deactivate or kill pathogenic microorganisms in water.
The most common disinfection methods used in industry are:
- Ultra-violet light
- Chlorine dioxide
Other solutions are:
The method of disinfection used depends on the industry, operation and specific requirements of the application. WPM incorporates the most suitable technology into the design for the water treatment system required.
Ozone is an unstable gas comprising of three oxygen atoms. The gas will readily degrade back to oxygen, and during this transition a free oxygen atom, or free radical forms. The free oxygen radical is highly reactive and short-lived, and oxidizes the cell surface of pathogens, to effectively destroy the cell.
Primary Advantages of Ozone:
- Ozone is effect over a wide pH range and rapidly reacts with bacteria, viruses, and protozoans and has stronger germicidal properties than chlorination.
- Ozone has a very strong oxidizing power with a short reaction time.
- The treatment process does not add chemicals to the water.
- Ozone can eliminate a wide variety of inorganic, organic and microbiological problems and taste and odour problems. The microbiological agents include bacteria, viruses, and protozoans (such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium).
Disadvantages of Ozone:
- There are higher equipment and operational costs, and it may be more difficult to find professionals proficient in ozone treatment and system maintenance.
- Ozonation provides no germicidal or disinfection residual to inhibit or prevent regrowth.
- It is possible that some by-products of ozone may be carcinogenic. These may include brominated by-products, aldehydes, ketones, and carboxylic acids.
- Post-filtration systems may include an activate carbon filter.
- The system may require pre-treatment for hardness reduction or the additional of polyphosphate to prevent the formation of carbonate scale.
- Ozone is corrosive to metals and reticulation systems must inhibit corrosion
- Potential fire hazards and toxicity issues associated with ozone generation.
Ultraviolet light is light with very high energy levels and a wavelength of 200 - 400 nm. The optimum germicidal effect of UV Light is caused by the 254nm wavelength. By this the DNA of any bacteria or virus will be photo-chemically damaged within a few seconds. As a result, the micro-organisms are killed (direct cell death) or lose their ability of multiplying (indirect cell death).
Advantages of UV:
- UV does not alter taste, odour, colour or pH of the water
- UV does not require the addition of chemicals
- UV does not impart toxic by-products into the water
- UV systems are compact and easy to install
- UV systems require very little maintenance
- UV systems have low running cost
Disadvantages of UV:
- UV can only effectively disinfect water with low quantities of particles / suspended solids
Chlorine dioxide systems
Chlorine Dioxide has the chemical formula ClO2 and is a yellow to brown coloured gas at room temperature and pressure. It is a highly reactive oxidant and for all practical areas of water disinfection, it must be generated on site using proprietary reaction and dosing equipment. Chlorine Dioxide is approximately 5 times more soluble than chlorine and 50 times more soluble than ozone.
Chlorine Dioxide (ClO2) is becoming increasingly used for water purification because of its unique combination of properties: a powerful, yet selective oxidant and biocide, disinfectant and sanitiser.
Advantages of Chlorine Dioxide:
- Very effective at low dosages, typically a continuous free residual of just 0.1 – 0.5 mg/l of ClO2 in a water can control a wide range of harmful bacteria and problematic microbes.
- Disinfects and sanitises rapidly
- Effective between pH 4 and 10
- No Halogenated Disinfection By-Products (DBPs)
- Does not alter taste or Odour and Taste
Disadvantages of Chlorine Dioxide:
- Must be manufactured on site
WPM can advise on the suitability of the Disinfection method based upon your application and depending on your incoming water conditions, requirements & budget constraints. WPM also carries the replacement chemical, membranes, and UV lamps and is able to ship anywhere as required.
Disinfection Solutions and Services
Rinse & CIP Water | Disinfection of Tanks & Pipelines | Metal Finishing Plants | Automotive Industry | Pharmaceutical Industry | Battery Plant Manufacturing | Reverse Osmosis Water Pre / Post Treatment | Manufacturing Plants | Closed Circuit Pre-Treatment | Open Circuit Cooling | Meat Processing Plants | Agricultural | Portable Water Generation | Municipalities